Download A Prehistory of the North: Human Settlement of the Higher by John F. Hoffecker PDF

By John F. Hoffecker

For the 1st time lately, now we have a synthesis of the most recent pondering and discoveries through a more youthful student with an authoritative seize of the topic. This e-book is a vital contribution to the final literature of human prehistory, distinctive for its accomplished insurance of the circumpolar regions.—Brian Fagan, writer of The lengthy summer season: How weather replaced Civilization

"A uniquely authoritative, hugely readable, and well-illustrated account of ways stone-age humans controlled to colonize the a long way North."—Richard G. Klein, Stanford University

Early people didn't easily go with the flow northward from their African origins as their skills to deal with cooler climates advanced. The preliminary payment of areas like Europe and northern Asia, in addition to the later move into the Arctic and the Americas, really happened in particularly quick bursts of growth. A Prehistory of the North is the 1st full-length research to inform the advanced tale, spanning nearly million years, of the way people inhabited the various coldest areas on earth.

In an account wealthy with illustrations, John Hoffecker strains the historical past of anatomical variations, nutrition variations, and technological advancements, similar to garments and safeguard, which allowed people the continuing skill to push the bounds in their habitation. The ebook concludes via displaying how within the previous few thousand years, peoples residing within the circumpolar zone—with the exception of western and crucial Siberia—developed a thriving maritime economy.

Written in nontechnical language, A Prehistory of the North presents compelling new insights and important info for pros and scholars.

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Additional info for A Prehistory of the North: Human Settlement of the Higher Latitudes

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8 million years ago, microwear analysis of Homo erectus teeth suggests a significant shift in diet. Tooth surfaces exhibit a pattern of “extreme gouging and battering” similar to that of a meat-eating and bonecrunching carnivore such as a hyena. 62 A major increase in the consumption of meat is less clear from the analysis of animal bones and artifacts at Homo erectus sites. 8 million years ago contain large mammal bones that have been broken and cut with stone tools, but indisputable evidence of hunting remains elusive.

Both the African apes and the orangutans are restricted to a narrow geographic range below latitude 15° North. Chimpanzees are the most versatile, and some of them inhabit open woodlands, while gorillas and orangutans are entirely confined to tropical forest within a few hundred miles of the equator. The living apes inhabit a small world where the average temperature is roughly 80° F (25° C) and rarely varies more than a few degrees during the year. Moisture is generally abundant and plant productivity is high.

Although climates were somewhat warmer and drier than now, Dmanisi supported a subtropical or temperate woodland containing birch and pine with some steppic plants (for example, Artemisia). A mixture of typical African and Eurasian mammals roamed the area, including horse (Equus stenonis), gazelle (Gazella borbonica), and deer (Dama nesti). 5 million years ago. This would have limited the earliest Eurasian hominids to representatives of Homo erectus, which exhibits some important anatomical differences with Homo habilis.

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