Download A Students' Guide to Piaget by D. G. Boyle (Auth.) PDF

By D. G. Boyle (Auth.)

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When he is hungry, therefore, sucking his thumb will not satisfy. The infant shows that he recognizes and discriminates objects by behaving towards them differently in different circumstances. iv. Reciprocal Assimilation. This is not a distinct form of assimilation, but refers to the co-ordination of schemata, a co-ordination that occurs when schemata assimilate each other. For instance, a child may learn a visual schema, that is to say may learn how visually to inspect an object, and may separately learn a manipulative schema, that is, how to handle an object.

So far we have talked about symbols. Among signs the most widely used by human beings are words. The young child at first has difficulty in employing words, for he finds it hard to understand that words must mean the same for everyone. The child's use of words is at first idiosyncratic, as we should expect from the egocentrism characteristic of this phase of development, 45 46 A Students' Guide to Piaget and only at about 6 or 7 years does the child develop a satisfactory efficiency in communication.

With reference to our original example. Suppose someone listed all the different types of dog in the world and then asked us to add to this the class "poodles"; we should see at once that the operation would be unnecessary and illegitimate, because the class of dogs (C in our example) includes the class of poodles D as well as that of nonpoodle dogs Df. Therefore C + D = C. W e should obtain a similar result by adding poodles and mammals (B + D = B), dogs and animals (A + C = A), and so on. Now if A + C = A, B + D = B, C + D = C, a n d so on, we realize that every class is playing the role of an identity element with respect to the classes that are supraordinate to it.

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