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By Geoffrey Burnstock Ph.D., D.Sc., F.A.A., Marcello Costa (auth.)

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Extra resources for Adrenergic Neurons: Their Organization, Function and Development in the Peripheral Nervous System

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Adrenal chromaffin cells receive innervation from cholinergic neurons whose origin is in the spinal cord and have therefore been equated with postganglionic adrenergic neurons (Coupland, 1965). The conditions for differential release of NA and A from the adrenal medulla and their roles in sympathetic responses are complex and deserve more extensive review. 2 Extra-adrenal chromaffin cells Extra-adrenal chromaffin cells are widely distributed in the body (Kohn, 1903; Boyd, 1960; Grigor'eva, 1962; Coupland, 1965; Jacobowitz, 1970; Kobayashi, 1971; Bock, 1970, 1973; Costa & Furness, 1973).

The presence of the two peaks of D~H corresponding to the 'light' and 'heavy' fractions indicates that, in the rat vas deferens, both small and large granular vesicles contain D ~H. Ordinates: D~H activity in units ml- 1 and NA content in ng ml- 1• Abscissae: molarity of sucrose in the density gradient. Reproduced with permission from Bisby, Fillenz and Smith, 1973. However, in the spleen the presence of D,BH in the small granular vesicles is dubious (see De Potter, Chubb & De Schaepdryver, 1972; Figure 7).

In the rat superior cervical ganglion increased sympathetic activity leads to an increase of tyrosine hydroxylase activity by a process of induction (synthesis of new enzyme). Reproduced with permission from Thoenen, 1972. increase in T -OH activity in the adrenergic cell bodies only after several hours and reaches a peak after several days (Axelrod, Mueller & Thoenen, 1970; Thoenen, 1970; Thoenen, Mueller & Axelrod, 1970; Thoenen, Kettler, Burkard & Saner, 1971; Bhatnagar & Moore, 1972; Figure 9).

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