Download Advances in irrigation agronomy : fruit crops by M. K. V. Carr PDF

By M. K. V. Carr

As worldwide strain on water assets intensifies, it's crucial that scientists comprehend the function that water performs within the improvement of plants and the way such wisdom may be utilized to enhance water productiveness. Linking crop body structure, agronomy and irrigation practices, this publication makes a speciality of 11 key fruit vegetation upon which thousands of individuals within the tropics and subtropics count for his or her livelihoods (avocado, cashew, Citrus spp., date palm, lychee, macadamia, mango, olive, papaya, ardour fruit and pineapple). each one bankruptcy stories overseas irrigation examine on anyone fruit crop, opting for possibilities for making improvements to the effectiveness of water allocation and inspiring readers to hyperlink clinical wisdom with functional purposes. essentially written and good illustrated, this is often an incredible source for engineers, agronomists and researchers fascinated with how the productiveness of irrigated agriculture may be better, within the context of weather switch, and the necessity for growers to illustrate reliable irrigation practices

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Immediately after flowering, many fruits drop from the tree. This is one of the most critical periods, determining both yield and fruit size. There is competition for resources between developing fruit and new shoot growth at a time when net assimilation rates and root growth are depressed. , 1995). In a series of container experiments in Australia, Turner et al. (2001) found that reproductive growth was very resistant to water deficits. Young fruit continued to grow, whilst vegetative growth was reduced.

1998). The sap-flow method (of which there are several variations) involves measuring the rate of flow of water up the stem using a heat pulse (or by carrying out a heat balance for a section of tree trunk). It is well suited to tree crops and has been tried, for example, on citrus and olive. Micro-meteorological methods, namely the Bowen-ratio and eddy-covariance methods, involve measuring the flux of water vapour above a crop using an array of 20 Introduction sensors. These methods have been used with several of the fruit crops reviewed in this book, including citrus, date palm, passion fruit and mango.

1). There are now about 25 000 ha grown along the Californian coast and inland about 60 km (Faber, 2006). , 2001). In semi-arid climates, such as those found in California, Chile, Israel and Australia, irrigation is essential. In other areas, irrigation is supplementary. However in the humid, summer-rainfall subtropics of Florida, Australia and South Africa, and in parts of the humid tropics such as Mexico, Brazil and Indonesia, unirrigated farming systems can be successful. Although national average yields of fresh fruit are low (< 10 t haÀ1), good growers in the semi-arid, winter-rainfall subtropics can obtain 12–15 t haÀ1 and, in the humid, summer-rainfall subtropics, the best can achieve up to 20–25 t haÀ1.

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