Download Against the Grain: How Agriculture Has Hijacked Civilization by Richard Manning PDF

By Richard Manning

During this provocative, wide-ranging e-book, Richard Manning deals a dramatically revisionist view of modern human evolution, starting with the big elevate in mind measurement that set us except our primate kinfolk and taken an accompanying bring up in our desire for nourishment. For 290,000 years, we controlled to fulfill that want as hunter-gatherers, a nation during which Manning believes we have been at our such a lot human: at our smartest, most powerful, so much sensually alive. yet our reliance on nutrients made a safe provide deeply beautiful, and finally we embarked upon the rural scan that has been the heritage of our earlier 10,000 years.

The evolutionary street is suffering from failed experiments, besides the fact that, and Manning means that agriculture as now we have practiced it runs opposed to either our grain and nature's. Drawing at the paintings of anthropologists, biologists, archaeologists, and philosophers, together with his personal travels, he argues that not just our ecological ills-overpopulation, erosion, pollution-but our social and emotional malaise are rooted within the devil's discount we made in our not-so-distant prior. And he bargains own, achieveable methods we would re-contour the trail we've got taken to resurrect what's such a lot sustainable and maintaining in our personal nature and the planet's.

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Additional info for Against the Grain: How Agriculture Has Hijacked Civilization

Sample text

This induced defence has been reported since the 1980s for more than 20 plant species in 13 families (see review by Dicke 1999). Two major categories of plant response may be distinguished (Dicke 1999). (1) The emission of large amounts of novel compounds that dominate the blend from herbivore-infested plants. These novel compounds are not emitted, or only emitted in trace amounts, by undamaged plants or by mechanically wounded plants. Examples comprise lima bean, corn, and cucumber. (2) Plants that emit qualitatively similar but quantitatively different blends in response to herbivory or mechanical wounding or when undamaged.

Plants can also emit different volatile blends in response to pathogens or herbivores. aris cv. Red Mexican) that arc infcsted with the bacterium Psezldomonus y i n g u e pv. phuseolicu emit a blend of volatiles that is produced through the lipoxygenase pathway, with (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol as major component, but no terpenoids are emitted (Croft et a1 1993, A. J . Slusarcnko, personal communication). ‘etruyhwswrticue, the plants emit a blend in which (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol is a minor component, several terpenoids are induced and the homoterpene 4,8,-dimethyl-l ,S(E),7-nonatriene is a dominant blend component (M.

Examples include tomato, potato and cabbage. A large amount of information is present on the effect of these induced plant volatiles on the behaviour of carnivorous arthropods such as predators and parasitoids. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles are very important to carnivorous arthropods. Their herbivore victims usually do not emit large amounts of volatiles: they are small components in the environment, and the emission of volatiles that attract their enemies is strongly selected against. Volatiles from undamaged plants, though more abundant than herbivore volatiles, do not provide information to carnivores on the presence of herbivores.

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