By Hemant Rawat
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In contrast, the immediate goal of most Southern-government signatories was to obtain additional foreign aid in the context of shrinking overall development assistance. Plants and the New Regimes 43 Some diversity-rich countries also hoped that the CBD would help them to establish their own biotechnology enterprises or at least to obtain revenues from the export of their genetic resources under the terms of bioprospecting contracts with Northern pharmaceutical firms and research institutions. Negotiation of the CBD from 1989 to 1992 involved intense disputes, mainly between the G77-plusChinabloc of Southern states and the more powerful industrialized nations of the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development).
CBD articles addressing access to genetic resources, distribution of the benefits these resources provide, the transfer of biotechnology, biosafety, and related intellectual-property issues have been hotly disputed throughout this process. Some CBD articles commit signatory countries to goals that, at least implicitly, conflict with the privatization and market-based valuation of nature. The CBD recognizes the sovereignty of states over genetic and other resources within their territories. It calls for the in situ and ex situ conservation of biologkal diversity, including crop genetic resources, for protection of the "traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of Plants and the Nezl' Regimes 41 biological diversity" of "local and indigenous" communities and of the" customary use of biological resources in accordance with traditional cultural practices".
0OH globulus") were sterilized by soaking them in 70% ethanol for 1 minute and 0 0 further soaking in 2% aqueous sodium HOVNH. hypochlorite solution for about 4 hours with stirring, washed HO 0 thoroughly with sterile water and NH. degree. C. K-a-n-a-m-y-o-·n-.... degree. C. 2/s in light intensity for the germination. S mgll zeatin, 20 gil sucrose and 9 gil agar and used as the germination medium. One to two weeks after the inoculation of seeds onto the germination medium, roots and cotyledons were cut off from the thus germinated seedlings to obtain the hypocotyls each keeping apical bud alone on its one end, and the GUS gene was introduced into its base part having no growing point, together with the kanamycin-resistant gene as a selectable marker gene.