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By Antonio A.R Ioris

This publication offers with previous legacies and rising demanding situations linked to agriculture construction, water and environmental administration, and native and nationwide improvement. It deals a severe interpretation of the tensions linked to the disasters of mainstream regulatory regimes and the affects of worldwide agri-food chains. a number of the chapters contain conceptual and empirical fabric from examine conducted in Brazil, India and Europe. The evaluation takes under consideration the dilemmas confronted via farmers, businesses, policy-makers and the overseas neighborhood regarding turning out to be meals call for, water shortage and environmental degradation. The booklet additionally questions so much executive reactions to these difficulties that have a tendency to breed previous, productivist methods and are in general below the robust effect of worldwide organizations, mega-supermarkets and funding money. Its total message is that the trajectory of agriculture, rural improvement and environmental administration are fundamental parts of the wider look for justice and novel socio-ecological thinking.

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Sample text

In historico-geographical terms, the financialization of the agri-food sector has provided a solution to the combination of the production and plunder spheres of capitalism. Financialization is also organically associated with spatial displacement, especially considering that neoliberalized agriculture is, above all, about the redistribution of value from the under-reproduced global periphery to the overconsuming Western core (Araghi 2009). Sharing the turbulent experience of most other Latin American countries, the Brazilian national state initiated a programme of neoliberal reforms in 1990 centred on monetary stabilization, privatization, and budget controls (Ioris and Ioris 2013).

Emerging environmental awareness and public mobilization, particularly in the political North, also added to the pressure on national governments and multilateral agencies to gradually shift from single engineering initiatives to more comprehensive responses. Informed by concepts such as ‘sustainable development’ and ‘systemic thinking’, new ways of dealing with water problems started to shape the global water agenda. Public policies have been particularly influenced by the goals of integrated water resources management (IWRM), which include the formulation of ‘holistic’ solutions to water management problems, the reconciliation of multiple demands, and, crucially, appreciation in the economic value of water (Mitchell 2005).

For the resource economists of that period, nature contained a large reserve of raw materials freely available for human exploitation; water was seen as abundant and, consequently, there was minimal need to limit its use (Adam Smith, for example, considered water to be beyond economic value; he described it as a ‘free good’ and, for that reason, distinct from landed property). A few decades later, David Ricardo pointed out that if water existed in ‘moderate abundance’ and could be appropriated, it would then afford a rent similar to land (Ricardo 1962 [1817]).

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