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By C.R.A. Godfrey

Deals a radical evaluation of the real agricultural purposes of either normal items and artificial compounds derived from usual items, proposing distinct details at the isolation, structural stories, organic job and toxicology of those compounds. The increasing region of insecticidal average items is highlighted.

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Extra resources for Agrochemicals from Natural Products (Books in Soils, Plants, and the Environment)

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2 pg/g for the milkweed bug. 20 mg/kg. E. mania Since the earlier review by Crosby [Sl], considerable work has been accomplished in isolating, identifying, and establishing the relative insecticidal activities of the compounds of ryania, the powder obtained by grinding the dried plant Ryania speciosia Vahl (Flacourtiaceae). In a recent study of ryania, the Casida group, utilizing radial TLC and preparative HPLC, isolated 10 of 11compounds previously identified and provided an HPLC and ‘HNMR procedure for monitoring different lots of powders [82].

Nerifolin, the most active of the two compounds, had an LD, of30 ppm in diet against corn borers compared to carbofuran at 1-2 ppm. 196 mg/kg). The novel nitro-containing nucleoside clitocine (123, Figure 23), isolated from the mushroom Clifocybe inversu, was claimed to have strong activity againstthe pink bollworm (Pectinophm gossypiella) [229]. Its synthesis has been reported [230]. From the edible mushroom Tricholomu muscurium Kawamura, tricholomic acid (124) was isolated as the active compound againstflies [231].

Incomparabletests, the earlier reported beauvericin (Figure 14) was inactive at 1000 ppm despite its similarity to bassianolide [134]. Bassianolide was synthesized along with the related cyclodepsipeptides enniatin C and decabassianolide (Figure 14) [135]. Whereas bassianolide killed silkworm larvae when injected above 5 pg/larvae, the others had no activity even at doses tenfold higher. However, enniatin A (Figure 14) in combination with closely related enniatin Al, has been isolated from cultures of Fusarium avenaceum present on balsam fir foliage and implicated as the possible causative agent in aiding the collapse of spruce budworm infestations [136].

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