By A. G. Brown
This finished technical guide is designed to offer archaeologists the required history wisdom in environmental technological know-how required to excavate and learn archaeological websites through rivers and on floodplains. Bringing jointly details at the evolution and exploitation of floodplain and river landscapes, this article attracts on examples from Britain, Europe, North the US and Australasia. a major topic is the interplay among climatic and cultural forces and the transformation of riverine environments.
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Additional info for Alluvial Geoarchaeology: Floodplain Archaeology and Environmental Change (Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology)
God of the Nile. The God Hapi was depicted as a man with woman's breasts (Figure Intro. 1), indicating strength, and powers of fertility and nourishment. They celebrated the God at the festivals of inundation, and because of the central role of the river in the Egyptian economy the collection of accurate hydrological records began in the First Dynasty (c. 3000 BC) with the engraving of maximum annual flood height on a large stone stele. The first Nilometer (fixed recording device or structure) was cut into the rocks at Samnah in the Twelfth Dynasty (c.
The new location will generally be the lowest path on the floodplain which is not obstructed, and in systems dominated by overbank deposition this will often be at the floodplain edge or the edge of the channel belt. This dramatic change, avulsion, is essential to the development of anastomosing systems but is also common in braided and meandering systems. It is therefore of geological importance and Bridge and Leeder (1979) have modelled it in a subsiding basin context. 6, alluvial stratigraphy is controlled by initial floodplain geometry, a mean net deposition rate related to distance from the channel belt, compaction of the non-channel belt deposits, periodic avulsion of the belt to the lowest point on the floodplain and tectonic tilting.
Floodplain features, generally straight linear depressions in the floodplain often cutting across the neck of a meander core or running at the edge of the floodplain. Circular to D-shaped areas bounded by a meander. May be composed of in-channel sediments and/or overbank sediments. Commonly covered by scroll-bars. Large areas behind the levees, very flat and featureless, underlain by silt and clay. Tributary channels running down the floodplain sub-parallel to the main river. Bed/channel forms caused by the deposition of sand and gravel at alternating sides of the channel associated with pool and riffle development in relatively straight reaches.